Is Being Productive the Highest Good?

Peter from Office Space (Picture from Rotten Tomatoes)

What happens when all we live to work. Let’s take a look at two shows that poke fun at the white-collar office worker. In the movie, Office Space, the main character, Peter, is disillusioned with the “rat race” of office life. Nike Kyrie Irving Robert Griffin III Baylor Jerseys

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  • His work is repetitive and unimportant, and therefore, he feels that his life is also repetitive and unimportant. His life is centered on his job. He lives to work, and because he does not have the right job, he is unhappy. nike air max 1 turquoise The “happy ending” of the movie is not that Peter eventually learns that there is more to life than work and his identity is not wrapped up in his job. The happy ending is that he eventually finds a job that has the things he likes, being outdoors and working with his hands. Nike Air Max 1 Femme nike tn requin Canotte Charlotte Hornet


    Jim from The Office (Picture from

    In the television show, The Office (U.S. version), one of the characters, Jim, is apathetic about his job at a paper company, Dunder Mifflin. baskets new balance pas cher Calvin Ridley Jersey Nebraska Cornhuskers Jim has hobbies, like cycling and playing guitar, but we get the impression that he generally considers his job boring and one of those necessary evils of life (his views change as the series progresses). Dwight, on the other hand, approaches his job at Dunder Mifflin with enthusiasm, showing up early, leaving late, and always trying to be a team player. He also happens to live and work on beet farm, of which he is equally enthusiastic. adidas superstar uomo miglior prezzo Both Office Space and The Office are written so that we relate to Peter and Jim. Parajumpers Femme Harraseeket They represent the angst that most white-collar workers feel, even if we cannot put our finger on exactly what that angst is. nike air force 1 high hombre Peter wants to be outside. Jim plays music. Zapatillas ROSHE RUN Asics Gel Lyte 5 Homme New Balance 247 mujer But are cubicles and paper-pushing really the problem? Perhaps the problem has to do with how we prioritize our lives. cheap wow gold Air VAPORMAX cheap nike trainers uk Our Western culture has bought into the idea that productivity is the highest good, and therefore work should be an end in itself. Productivity is certainly one of many signs of a good employee or a well-run business, but it is not an end in itself. Miami Heat Being productive should not be the end-all-be-all of life. To live for productivity is hollow and dehumanizing. Machines are fine-tuned to be optimally productive. Nike Lunartempo 3 femme Fjallraven Kanken Big People strive for something more, and productivity helps us get there. What is leisure? In pre-modern times, people whose lives were centered on work were called slaves or laborers. Asics Gel Lyte 5 Femme Rouge They put in twelve or fourteen-hour days and spent their non-working time resting and recuperating so that they can work the next day. Their value is in their productivity. This is contrasted to the aristocracy. Case Keenum – Houston Cougars They engaged in leisure activities, but these activities are not what we think of when we think of “leisure” today. The aristocracy considered leisure activities important for cultural enrichment. ffxiv gil cheap Those that used their freedom to engage in diversions or hedonism were considered slothful. adidas neo donna Leisure, in the classical sense of the term, is different from restful activities to help recuperate from a long day or mindless activities to cope with the mental tedium of repetitive, labor-intensive work. Air Jordan 31 Homme Leisure activities consisted of the higher pursuits, like education, art, music, and sport. It is no accident that the word we use for “school” comes from the Latin translation of the Greek word for leisure.

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  • Leisure activities often consisted of difficult things that required hard work to master, but these activities were personally enriching and culturally significant. They often involved creating or writing things that have aesthetic appeal and are good in and of themselves. adidas ultra boost uncaged uomo The Industrial Revolution This two class system was turned on its head with the advance of the Industrial Revolution. adidas nmd r1 uomo Industrialization, over the course of one hundred years, took menial, repetitive, undignified work and automated it. It also meant that people did not have to work as many hours, allowing all people to have a life that consisted of rest (including sleeping, eating, and bodily care), non-work, and work time. The non-work time was to be a time for leisure pursuits so that all men may cultivate a virtuous character and engage in culture-making. This resulted in more people getting an education and engage in the arts and sciences. nike air jordan 3 uomo But something happened that caused people to lose track of those priorities. Mortimer Adler, an early-twentieth century scholar, points out that while the Industrial Revolution did much to dignify work and rid of us a labor/aristocracy class system, it also skewed our understanding of work, leisure, and recreation. New Balance 993 m?skie

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    1. The Industrial Revolution eliminated the value of individual craftsmanship. Things that used to be made by artisans and craftsmen, like shoes, clothes, candles, or food, were easily produced in the factory setting, thus trivializing certain kinds of work.
    2. The Industrial Revolution changed our priorities such that producing more and more goods became the purpose of all of our efforts. Adidas Zx Flux Homme Noir Adler says that we ought to regard the increase in productivity only as a means and not as an end.
    3. As a result, people now think free time should be used only for recreation (or recuperation) in order to get back to work and produce more. cheap air jordans free shipping It is no longer a time to engage in those things that are edifying and that often bring people joy. Instead, it is spent engaging in diversions which are not ultimately fulfilling.
    4. Classical, or liberal, education was replaced with training for the job so that a person can become a productive member of society. nik shox homme Nike Air Max Thea Femme Grise This perpetuated a kind of empty meaning to education that goes something like this: “Go to school and make good grades, so you can go to a good college, so you can get a good job, so you can be a productive member of society.”

    Meaninglessness By placing an emphasis on productivity, people live to work, and therefore, their free time is spent on things that are not tiring, but also not particularly enriching. This leads to a kind of boredom that philosopher-types like to call hyper-boredom. Nike Dames San Antonio Spurs You get the sense of this hyper-boredom when you watch Peter in Office Space. Nike Air Max BW Femme Maglie New Orleans Pelicans However, hyper-boredom is more than “being in a funk” or not finding the right job. It is a malaise that is best described as operating as though everything was ultimately meaningless. Purdue Boilermakers Why is a proper view of leisure important? Adler summarizes the classical concept of leisure as “consisting in all those activities by which the individual grows morally, intellectually, and spiritually, through which he attains personal excellence and also performs his moral and political duty.” Essentially, it is the things people love to do and would do whether they were paid or not. adidas gazelle femme Adidas Yeezy 750 Boost Leisure is not the same has having nothing to do or “killing time” and it is not a diversion to cope with life. Adler points out that, based on the classical concept of leisure, the good life depends on labor, but it consists of leisure. Air Jordan 3.5 Spizike Femme Fjallraven Kanken Sale Kids A couple of caveats are in order, though. Air Max 87 Pas Cher

    First, some people are blessed to be able to do the leisure activities that they love as their full-time job. Nike Pas Cher Adler, a college professor, considered his job both work and leisure. Adidas Homme But, as anyone who has ever been a full-time teacher, writer, or artist knows, there is still a labor aspect to their leisure activity. Most people do not consider grading papers, filling out tax forms, or making sales pitches leisure activities. These things tend to be compulsory, making them work rather than leisure. Second, this is not to say productivity is bad. Mario Manningham Jersey It is good to be productive as part of pursuing excellence in work. Adidas Yeezy 750 Homme However, orienting your life around productivity is to enslave yourself. Recall that in The Office, Jim was apathetic about work, but Dwight was not. Air Max 2017 Rosso Uomo

    Their characters are meant to be comic foils of each other, but as always, comedy is funny because it contains elements of truth. Dwight had a beet farm, a leisure activity, while Jim had diversions. Adidas Zx Flux Homme Rouge Jim’s character started to change when he engaged in a meaningful relationship. Nike buty We often think that our leisure, or non-work time, is unimportant, but in reality, it is very important.

    Can We Make an Embryo in a Dish?

    Induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are functionally equivalent, but should we be concerned about making embryos in a dish? Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been hailed as the discovery of the decade, providing an ethical alternative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Both types of stem cells are pluripotent, which means they can potentially make all of the cells in they body. Adidas NMD Femme This is contrasted to totipotent cells, which can give rise to an entire organism. asics gel kinsei 5 homme Parajumpers Femme Masterpiece Long The very early embryo consists of totipotent cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells have technical advantages over ESCs because the patient’s cells can be used rather than donor cells, and they are easier to control compared to ESCs. nike internationalist homme However, one of the concerns with iPSCs was whether they are truly equivalent to ESCs because of the various transcription factors that need to be turned on or off to get the cells to regress back to their pluripotent state. nike air max 2016 uomo

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  • This debate was laid to rest with a new research report in Science, demonstrating that while iPSCs are genetically distinct from ESCs, they are functionally equivalent. New Balance 574 homme Adidas Femme New Balance 373 mujer Before deeming every iPSC procedure ethical and effective, consider the question several researchers from Australia, The Netherlands, and the U.K. Asics Heren ask in a Nature Methods commentary “What if stem cells turn into embryos in a dish?” Their reason for asking stems from research that shows how pluripotent stem cells (both iPSCs and ESs) can form organoids, small three-dimensional clumps of cells that are comprised of a particular organ’s cell type. Chaussures nike pas cher

  • The techniques to make pluripotent stem cells undergo the self-assembly and morphogenesis required to form an organoid also causes these cells to have many of the properties of embryos at the gastrulation stage of development. Nike Air Force 1 Without delving too deeply into the complexities of embryonic development, the gastrulation stage is a key point when it comes to regulations for human embryo research. nike dynamo free td (See here for a simple summary of recent research about stem cells that have been dubbed “gastruloids”). kanken baratas The U.K. adidas xeno superstar italia

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  • has a fourteen-day limit on human embryonic research. Human embryos are not allowed to remain intact in vitro beyond the fourteen-day point or after the formation of the primitive streak, whichever comes first. scarpe nike air max bambino scontate Australia has similar regulations. The pluripotent cells that appeared to reach the gastrulation stage seemed to form a primitive streak and showed signs of forming the beginnings of the Central Nervous System. Matt Holliday Authentic Jersey There are two things to consider.

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  • First, while these are hallmarks of a particular point in embryonic development, it is not the case that this clump of cells is an embryo. The stem cells are self-organizing, but they are without the same kind of holistic directionality that an embryo has. final fantasy 14 gil nike free 5.0 uomo saldi So while these stem cells proliferate in a more “organized” way than, say, a tumor, they lack key embryonic features. Nike Air Foamposite Nike Air Max 2016 Heren However, the authors pose an important question that needs to be addressed because the technology could eventually make embryos in a dish. new balance 574

  • Consider two situations in which it is possible to make an embryo without two genetic contributors, a mother and a father. The first is cloning, or somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the second is making gametes using iPSCs. Women Air Jordan 9 Somatic cell nuclear transfer has been successfully done in both animals and humans, although only animal cloned embryos have been implanted and birthed. Cloned animals tend to be unhealthy and often die young.

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  • This continues to be an area of research, as evidenced by a recent article in Cell Stem Cell in which researchers from South Korea reported more efficient methods for cloning human embryos.* Gametogenesis is another active area of research. If induced pluripotent stem cells could be induced to differentiate into gametes (egg and sperm), then this would theoretically allow the creation of an embryo. Air More Uptempo Colorways This embryo may only have one parent if the egg and sperm were made from the same donor. nike air zoom pegasus 32 femme Or, it could be made from two parents who are the same gender. nike internationalist enfants Adidas Zx Flux Femme Blanche Nike TN Requin 2017 This is not yet possible because the oocyte is particularly tricky to form, but there is ongoing research attempting to produce both types of gametes from induced pluripotent stem cells. nike air max 1 og homme Maglia Patrick Ewing

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  • Whether one uses somatic cell nuclear transfer or gametogenesis via iPSCs, the creation of a human embryo is ethically problematic for many reasons. Adidas Zx 750 Homme The authors of the Nature Methods commentary raise important questions that hinge on when an embryo becomes an embryo in the laboratory setting. There are valid reasons to give the embryo a special status whether it is ever implanted in a uterus or not. Nike Air Max 2017 Donna Bianche

    Adidas Superstar Schoenen Dames As technology allows us to unravel the complex operations that go into meiosis and embryogenesis, we must carefully consider where moral lines are drawn. Nike Air Max Thea Homme Bleu Because making an embryo in a dish would be taking the technology too far, drawing ethical lines may require a nuanced approach to just what types of experiments are okay and where in the technical process the line must be drawn so that pluripotent stem cells remain at the pluripotent stage. air max homme pas cher Nike Air Max 2016 Dames Zwart * Technically, “clones” like Dolly the sheep are really chimeras, meaning there is a small amount of DNA from the oocyte donor that is different from the nuclear DNA. Nike Air Max 2017 Heren blauw The clone would produce an embryo from one genetic source if both the original cell and the oocyte came from the same animal.

    Synthetic Biology and Making Morphine in the Lab

    Prescription pain medicine addiction has become prevalent and widespread with several areas in the U.S. calling it a public health crisis. Opiates include prescription pain medicines, such as Vicodin, OxyContin, or fentanyl. The surge in opiate drug addiction can be traced to changes in the increase in prescriptions for opiate drugs beginning in the 1990s. Now headlines tout the possibility of a “home-brewed heroin.” If we unpack the headline, it turns out this “home-brewed” heroin is not exactly here yet. Scientists have replicated all of the metabolic processes that opium poppies use to turn glucose into morphine. nike air max 90 pas cher They have replicated parts of this process in yeast strains in an effort to make less addictive pain medicines as well as other analgesics. This synthesis of cellular processes is called synthetic biology. asics onitsuka tiger femme By way of a quick review, synthetic biology involves creating the digital DNA code to make proteins, the internal machinery of a cell, in the lab. Nike Chaussures Femme Yeast and e.coli are simple organisms and are often used to insert the DNA in a cell fitted with the necessary equipment to replicate and express the DNA. Craig Venter, in his book on synthetic biology, Life at the Speed of Light, calls DNA the software and yeast provides the hardware. Scientists want to tweak the software to make tailor-made drugs. Synthetic biology overlaps with genetic engineering, but where it differs is that synthetic biology allows scientists to replicate an entire cellular pathway within an organism, such as yeast, as opposed to inserting or deleting mutations in a DNA strand and then inserting it in a cell. Parajumpers Windbreaker Mary Todd The metabolic pathway reported in Nature (See the Nature News article) is the first part of the glucose-to-morphine pathway. Julio Jones Alabama Football Jerseys The second part of the pathway, as well as a reaction that links the two parts, was recently reported by other research groups. All of these parts have been demonstrated separately in various yeast strains. If scientists were to combine these parts in one yeast strain, then theoretically, they would be able to convert glucose to morphine. This has not been done yet, but will likely occur soon. AIR MAX 2016

    The process for making morphine from glucose is complex (it’s approximately eighteen steps), and because scientists do not know the whole genome for the opium poppy, they have had difficulty identifying the enzymes that catalyze each step in the reaction pathway. To overcome this hurdle, scientists turned to enzymes in other organisms to that catalyze similar reactions. The most recent research that identifies the first half of the morphine pathway used an enzyme from sugar beets that scientists mutated to ensure that it produced the product they needed without unwanted byproducts. The question remains, are we at a point where people can brew their own synthetic morphine? The short answer is no, not yet. Adidas Zx 850 Heren First, all of the steps have not been combined into a yeast strain. While this may be the next step in making synthetic morphine in the lab, it will need to be tested, and it may not work at first. Once scientists succeed at creating a yeast strain that can accomplish all of the steps, the process will need to be refined and optimized. New Balance 530 femme Johnny Cueto Jersey Secondly, in order for someone to brew their own morphine, he would have to acquire the yeast strain containing the synthetic DNA. NIKE AIR FOOTSCAPE This would mean acquiring the yeast from someone who not only knows the DNA code, but also has a PCR machine or some way to make synthetic DNA and then incorporate it into yeast. adidas superstar 80s homme Lastly, even if someone did acquire the yeast strain, according to Christine Smolke of Stanford University whose lab has made a semi-synthetic opioid using yeast, in an interview with Wired, said that the fermentation process would require specialized equipment and conditions that would be difficult to do outside a laboratory. It would also not produce enough morphine to make it cost effective. Adidas Superstar Femme Portee Fjallraven Kanken 16L While we are not at the point of worrying about home-brewed liquid morphine, the authors of the study were concerned about future consequences of their research. Adidas Zx 850 Femme One of the motivations for designing the synthetic pathway is to tweak it to make less addictive pain medicine or to make medicines for other uses. asics gel kinsei 5 femme This same ability to tweak the morphine-producing pathway could also be used for nefarious purposes. Nike Air Max 95 Femme New Balance 577 mujer The authors of the study sought ethical guidance from biotechnology-policy specialists Kenneth Oye, of MIT and Tania Bubela, of the University of Alberta. They published an article in Nature with Chappell Lawson, also from MIT, that came out in tandem with the research article. Oye, Bubela, and Chappell delineate the ethical and legal considerations for such research and provide four broad areas that should be considered:

    • Engineering – The yeast strains could be engineered to make them less appealing to criminals and more difficult to cultivate outside of a laboratory setting, similar to biocontainment practices with e. nike air zoom pegasus 33 homme coli.
    • Screening – Since the DNA sequence would need to be ordered from a lab, there could be a screening process in place that flags orders of opiate-producing yeast strains
    • Security – They could employ biosecurity measures, such as watermarking yeast made from certain labs and background checks on people working with the strains.
    • Regulation – Opium is a globally controlled substance. The laws that apply to opium could be extended to cover opiate-producing yeast strains.

    Overall, the headlines are a little misleading in that we are not yet on the cusp of people brewing their own morphine. However, the authors should be commended for considering the consequences of publishing their research and seeking ethical guidance. It is a good example of pre-emptively considering the hazards and consequences of technological advancement rather than responding to a crisis.

    The Language of Morality

    When it comes to making moral decisions, is it better to have emotional distance or to have compassion? An ethics professor once told me that ethics is not about choosing between right and wrong because you should always choose what’s right. Parajumpers Homme Ethics is typically about choosing between two wrongs. Certainly, if two people are approaching a decision from differing moral foundations, they may disagree on the “right” decision, but what the professor meant was that they are still trying to decide the “right” decision in a difficult situation in which there are “wrongs” that must be weighed on both sides of the issue. When people disagree, they are often prioritizing the wrongs differently. Let’s take a typical example from ethics class: if a train is running out of control, and one track has one person tied to it and another track with five people tied to it and you have control of the switch that will direct the train to either of these two tracks, which one do you pick? More than merely a macabre puzzle game, these improbable scenarios are meant to illuminate how one makes ethical decisions. Often, in the train example, people will kill the one person to save the five people. The next bit is to change the scenario slightly to see if the same kind of utilitarian calculation applies. For example, the one person on the train track is your father, and the five people on the other track are strangers. You still have control of the switch, what do you choose to do? Or, another way to change the scenario is to change the demographics of the victims. What if the one person is a child, while the five people are escaped prisoners? Or, the one person is a woman and the five people are men? Thankfully, we rarely find ourselves in such troubling situations. napapijri geographic wikipedia However, what influences our answer to these questions becomes much more important when we move out the realm of imaginary trains and into real situations. One example of this is in medicine. Bioethicists often debate how to determine who receives scarce medical resources. Take the train example, and whether your answers changed when we changed the demographic of the people tied to the rail. This is quite similar to the questions ethicists ask when it comes to deciding who should receive an organ from an organ donor. There are more people waiting for an organ transplant than there are available organs, so we have a situation in which the ethicist must decide how to choose the person who lives in a fair and just way. This is a case of weighing out the “wrongs” because no matter what the ethicist chooses, someone will likely die. People make decisions based on many factors, but an article in The Economist indicates one unforeseen factor. A study in which some participants were asked two variations of the train scenario in their native language while other participants were asked these scenarios in a different language showed a difference when asked in a different language. Participants were not fluent in the other language, and were tested to ensure they were able to understand the question. In one scenario, the train will hit five people who are lying on the track, and the only way to save them is to push a fat man onto the track in front of the train. You cannot jump in front of the train; the only way to save them is to shove the fat man in the path of the train. belts small accessories The other scenario is the switch and two tracks mentioned above. The switch scenario emotionally distances the person from the violent act. When given the switch scenario, most people opt to kill the one person in order to save five. This was the case whether the question was asked in a person’s native language or in a different language. However, when the person must push the fat man onto the track, about 20% of people would push the fat man onto the track when asked in their native language (This was also the same for people fluent in a particular language), but when asked in a different language, the percentage was 33%. After several tests and analyses to account for factors such as cultural mores and randomness, the study confirmed that when people are asked about the fat man scenario in a different language, they were more likely to push him onto the track compared to when they are asked in their native language or a language in which they have fluency. It seems that the different language provides emotional distance similar to the way the switch provided emotional distance. We live in a globalized world in which many people communicate and make decisions in a different language. Based on this study, it seems that language barriers also create emotional distance that is not necessarily there if the person is making the decision in his or her native language. In the area of medicine, this may have implications for patients who are asked to make a decision while living in a different country that does not speak his or her language. Additionally, this may have implications for patients who are unfamiliar with technical medical jargon, in which the use of jargon may be similar to hearing a problem in a different language.

    Is It Cheating or Discrimination?

    Dutee Chand (Manjunath Kiran/AFP/Getty Images)

    Sprinter Dutee Chand has been banned from competing in track-and-field because her body produces abnormally high levels of testosterone as reported in The New York Times. asics pas cher Chand is India’s 100-meter, under 18 champion and was an Olympic hopeful, but after an official or a competitor at the Asian Junior Athletics Championships in June requested that Chand be tested for hyperandrogenism, she was pulled from the sport. Chand had won two gold medals at the event. It was found that Chand has a condition which causes her body to produce more testosterone than what is considered the normal range for women. Chand’s case is not unique. Recent studies have shown that hyperandrogenism may be overrepresented among female athletes compared to the general population. Four female athletes were pulled from the 2012 London Olympics and taken to France for testing. mu legend zen for sale buty asics 43 All of them, like Chand, came from rural regions of developing countries. cheap mu Legend zen The London athletes were told to undergo surgery if they wanted to compete. The International Association of Athletics Federations (I.A.A.F.) deemed that Chand cannot compete unless she takes hormone suppressing drugs or has surgery.

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  • Chand is contesting this stating that she should not have to change her body. From a bioethics standpoint, there are several issues that are cause for concern regarding Chand’s case: 1) It is one thing to ban performance enhancers. It is another to require performance “diminishers” to change someone’s natural abilities. 2) Elite athletes are, by definition, not within the range of normal. Why are some genetic abnormalities allowed, but others are not? 3) What is the purpose of sport if it is not to celebrate God-given abilities coupled with training and hard work? Chand has always considered herself a female and for all intents and purposes is female, but her body produces more testosterone than most females do. Her diagnosis of hyperandrogenism does not necessarily mean that she had an additional Y chromosome, as in Klinefelter syndrome, or a segment of a Y chromosome attached to one of her X chromosomes, as in De la Chappelle syndrome. sac a dos fjallraven soldes It just means that her body produces significantly more testosterone. Furthermore, while synthetic testosterone, often taken for doping, confers an unnatural athletic advantage, the science on how naturally produced testosterone caused by hyperandrogenism and some of these other syndromes is still unknown. David Epstein, in his book The Sports Gene, cites Spanish hurdler Maria Jose Martinez-Patino as an example of this. She had De la Chappelle syndrome so her body was producing male levels of testosterone. However, she developed fully female because her body also had androgen insensitivity, which means her body does not respond to testosterone. Hormones, like testosterone, are chemical signals, and in people with androgen insensitivity, their body does not seem to read the signal. Oregon Ducks Her success as a hurdler, Epstein argues, is likely due to something else. Epstein spoke with two endocrinologists who believe that androgen insensitivity is likely overrepresented in both sports and modeling. Even though their bodies do not respond to testosterone, they do seem to exhibit certain physical features. In women with high testosterone but androgen insensitivity, their arms and legs tend to be longer than the average female, and they tend to be a couple of inches taller than average female height. Because they do not respond to testosterone, they are feminine, but this added height and limb length can be an athletic advantage in certain sports. Epstein interviewed Jeff Brown, an endocrinologist who works with top athletes in the U.S., several of whom are Olympic gold medalists. Dr. Brown reports that several of his female athletes have partial 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is genetically passed down from the parents, and can cause an overproduction of testosterone. mu2legendzen Women with low-level 21-hydroxylase deficiency develop normal ovaries and uterus, but their bodies produce more testosterone. How that testosterone is read by the body is still unclear. mu legend zen As a note, men can have 21-hydroxylase deficiency, but its effects are less dramatic. Interestingly Dr. Brown points out that the endocrine system of elite athletes, in general, differs noticeably from those of most adults. He points out that there are many things about the bodies of elite athletes that are different from most people. This brings up the second issue with Chand’s case. By definition, elite athletes are rare. Once we start talking about the upper echelons of athletic performance, it is often the rare combination of genetics, work ethic, and opportunity that allows an athlete to become elite. buy mu legend zen Consider the example of arm span in the NBA. It is a given that a six-foot male is considered “short” in the NBA. In general, most NBA players are taller than average. But being over six-feet tall is not as rare as having an arm span that is longer than height. This rare trait is overrepresented in the NBA. Normal adults have an arm span that is roughly equivalent to their height. In the NBA, most players have an arm span that is significantly longer than their height. For example, Kevin Durant is 6’9” but has a reported wingspan of 7’4”. LeBron James is 6’7.25” with a wingspan of 7’0.25”. Michael Jordan is 6’6” with a reported wingspan of 6’11.5” (Statistics are from and Longer arm span means that these athletes actually have a taller effective height. nike pas cher Pertinent to the topic, NBA players are not asked to do something about their arm span in order to compete in the Olympics or play competitive, professional basketball. One possible exception is Baylor University’s Isaiah Austin.

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  • His basketball career was cut short when pre-draft testing found that he had Marfan syndrome, deeming him ineligible to play basketball competitively. One of the symptoms of Marfan syndrome is tallness and an elongation of arms and fingers due to weak connective tissues in the joints. It also gave Austin a longer wingspan than height, likely giving him an advantage on the court. However, the difference between Austin’s case and Chand’s is that the effects of Marfan syndrome are well-known. Marfan syndrome can endanger an athlete because it affects the heart, eyes, circulatory system, and the skeletal structure. Austin was told that he had an enlarged heart and extreme physical exertion could kill him. Chand’s condition does not pose a known health risk. The NBA is only one example. Genetic aberrations are seen in many other sports, yet these people are not asked to undergo chemical or surgical alterations to conform to certain notions of “normal.” Indeed, in the case of using performance enhancing drugs, which are illegal, the point is to synthetically procure what one was not given naturally. The point is to become “like” someone who is rare so that you can win. Canotta Squadra USA Finally, Chand’s case brings up a larger philosophical question of the purpose of sport. Pierre Coubertin, who was instrumental in re-inventing the modern Olympic movement, considered athletic training part of the cultivation of virtues. He takes a post-Enlightenment, humanist perspective that stems from the pre-modern Judeo-Christian idea that all people are of equal moral worth, although not all are of equal capability. For Coubertin, the point was not winning-at-all-costs, but becoming a better person through discipline, integrity, self-control, hard work, and perseverance. However, given equal training and opportunity, if one athlete has bad knees and the other does not, then the one with better knees will prevail. Coubertin’s perspective would have little to say about an athlete like Chand. Presumably, the emphasis would be on whether she was cultivating a virtuous character. For some, sport is about showing off technological prowess, which is often tied to a sense of nationalism when played on a global stage. Oftentimes, this view does not see using performance enhancers as a problem because it is considered part of training with the best technology possible. The competition is not just between individual athletes, but between countries. The question isn’t which athlete won the gold, but how many gold medals did a particular country receive. The accumulated successes reflect back on the country’s resources, politics, training, and technological capabilities. From this perspective, it is in the competing countries’ interest to make sure that the competitors are homogenous. legend zen for sale This would mean that an athlete like Chand would be excluded because she does not fall within the “norm” and therefore provides one country with an unfair advantage over another. mu legend power leveling Finally, another perspective is that sport is about admiring individual differences and God-given abilities. From this perspective, demanding that an athlete chemically or surgically “normalize” herself would constitute cheating because she would be altering herself from how she was born in a way that is meant to change her athletic performance. Incidentally, using performance enhancing drugs would also be unethical for the same reasons, but rather than attempting to normalize the athlete, those that use PEDs are intentionally trying to make themselves above the norm. This perspective would include Chand in world-class competition. Whether she should compete with men or women is another debate, perhaps one that calls into question some notions of gender segregation in sports. Sports is an age-old social sphere that, in many ways, reflects something about our cultural values. Chand’s body is not within the “norm,” but most elite-level, world-class athletes are not, in one way or another, within the norm either. It is unfortunate that rather than celebrating her distinctive qualities and abilities as a sprinter, she is treated as less-than-adequate for physical qualities that are not under her control.

    NFL and Prescription Drugs

    The NFL is being sued by 1,300 former players for the way it distributed prescription pain medicines so players can get back in the game. The former players claim that they were not informed of the side effects of potent pain killers such as Percodan, Percocet, Vicodin, and Toradol. Jackets soft shell Percodan, Percocet and Vicodin are all opioid painkillers and Toradol is a strong non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug. Many of the former NFL players involved in the lawsuit played during the 1980s and 1990s when practices for administering powerful painkillers, both opioids and NSAIDs, were cavalier. Today they are, in theory, more regulated. New Balance 577 hombre sac a dos kanken pas cher kobe 11 pas cher Ezekiel Elliott Ohio State Jerseys The players state that the “NFL medical staffs routinely violated federal and state laws in plying them with powerful narcotics to mask injuries on game days.” They also claim that medical staff was negligent by keeping important information on the players’ medical conditions from them, such as markers for kidney disease or broken bones.

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  • At issue are 1) whether doctors and trainers violated the law by illegally administering prescription drugs, and 2) whether players were adequately informed of the side-effects of the drugs as well as informed of any medical issues that doctors found that might affect their decision. Doctors Behaving Badly? In an attempt to investigate whether illegal practices were going on, the DEA paid unannounced visits to several professional teams in November (2014) in which they questioned team doctors and trainers after the game. This investigation was to ensure that doctors were prescribing and distributing drugs appropriately, that they were handling controlled substances properly when crossing state lines, and that they had a license to practice in the state. Buty Adidas Dzieci?ce Thus far, the DEA has not found evidence of illegal activities in their investigation. However, an investigation from Vice Sports into how and where NFL doctors acquired such large amounts of prescription drugs, shows that, at least in the past, they were likely obtaining drugs illegitimately. zalando new balance uomo saldi From 2009 to 2010, several NFL teams, as well as other professional and college sports teams, acquired large amounts of opioids and NSAIDs from a company called SportPharm, an illegal drug distributor operating behind the legitimate company, RSF Pharmaceuticals. Julio Jones Jersey RSF Pharmaceuticals eventually shut down, and SportPharm was re-branded as a subsidiary of Champion Health Services, which is still in operation. nike free 3.0 v5 ext leopard Many teams would fill prescriptions in player’s names without the player knowing so that the actual quantities would fly under the radar. Cheap Fjallraven Kanken Backpack Informed Consent The second issue has to do with players’ rights, and whether they were adequately informed of what drugs they were given, their medical options given their current medical situation, and the long-term side effects. Nike Air Max 90 Uomo Many of the players received opiate drugs without being told about their addictive nature, and were often told to take them for longer or in higher dosages than what is recommended by the FDA. Adidas NMD Heren Furthermore, many players were given prescription pain medicine without a doctor’s evaluation or monitoring. Nike Benassi asics gel stratus uomo One former player reports that while playing for one team, an assistant trainer would pass out unlabeled manilla envelopes with pain medicine for any player that raised his hand and said he needed them. Mens Nike Air Max 90 Air Max 2014 Homme

    Another former player said that envelopes with prescription pain medicine would be waiting in the seats on the airplane for the players. Matthew Stafford UGA Jersey Player testimonies from the class action law suit website show that many players were given powerful pain medicine instead of being told that they needed rest and recovery or that the problem was actually much worse and required surgery. Several players said that NFL doctors knew of existing health issues, but did not inform the players. Cheap Nike shoes UK Two players’ testimonies state that NFL doctors knew that they had indicators of kidney problems but did not tell the players. Maglie Denver Nuggets Both former players now have renal failure. Asics Gel Lyte 3 Donna Beige

    Another former player, Rex Hadnot, said in a Washington Post interview that he was given Toradol pills and/or injections once-per-week for nine years. He was never told that Toradol should not be administered for more than five days due to risk of kidney damage, heart attack, and stroke. He said that sometimes he would receive both a shot and a pill on the same day, a much higher dosage than the FDA recommends. The Mountain Climber Problem Part of the problem with discerning the ethics of safety for football players is exemplified in what H. Air Jordan 4 Retro

  • Tristam Engelhardt calls “the mountain climber problem.” In general, climbing a mountain is more dangerous than not climbing a mountain, but we do not consider it unethical to allow a mountain climber to scale a mountain if he so desires. Similarly, playing sports is inherently more dangerous than not playing sports. Nike Air Jordan 4.5 Womens
    Football players take on additional risks by choosing to play the sport. Yeezy Boost 750 Therefore, what protections, if any, are football players owed? There is a tension between restricting someone’s freedom and allowing them to put themselves in harm’s way. Nike Lebron 13 Nike Free 5.0 Hombre Typically, with the mountain climber problem, ethicists will say that it is unethical to allow additional harm to come to the person such that he or she could not accomplish the stated goal of climbing the mountain. For example, while mountain climbing is inherently dangerous, the climber should still use a harness and ropes. Huston Street Baseball Jersey In the case of football players, while it is an inherently dangerous sport, one can enforce safety precautions to ensure that players are not injured in such a way that they cannot play the sport. jack wolfskin paw hat bere This is the motivation behind stricter rules to prevent concussions, helmet design, and padding. Air Jordan 11 Homme

    The difference between the mountain climber and the football player is that collisions are part of the sport. asics tiger lyte jogger Pain is a given. The former players who are suing the NFL claim that their health was sacrificed in the name of sales. nike air max 2016 goedkoop But, other players criticize the lawsuit as nothing more than a money grab on behalf of former players because they knew what they were risking by playing the sport. Utah State Aggies Despite whatever motivations are behind the lawsuit or the NFL’s medical decisions, it is unethical to de-humanize athletes, even if they willingly chose to engage in de-humanizing activities. Caps Nike Air Max 2017 Kopen Let’s take a non-football example: If a woman choses to trade sex for money, she is willingly commodifying herself and ultimately engaging in a de-humanizing activity. adidas outlet shop asics gel lyte 3 hombre azules While this may have been her free choice, it does not mean that if she goes to a doctor, the doctor is no longer ethically obligated to treat her with human dignity. Air Jordan XX8 Retro
    In other words, even if she chooses to engage in activities that are de-humanizing, that does not mean it is okay for medical health professionals to treat her as less-than-human. In the case of football players, even if they may choose short-term returns at the expense of long-term injury, they need to be given the opportunity to make an informed choice on the matter because, ultimately, they are the ones that have to live with the consequences. new balance 1980 zante roma In the latest issue of Salvo Magazine (Winter, 2014) I cover the larger issue of prescription pain medicine addiction, what opiate drugs actually do to the brain, and how one becomes addicted.