What Is Natural?

For several weeks now I have been trying to write about the Nuffield Bioethics Report called (un)Natural. The Nuffield Bioethics Council is a non-partisan bioethics think tank that analyzes particular issues of importance in science, medicine, and technology. They are based in the UK and have some influence over policy issues because of their presence in the mainstream media. adidas nmd r1 femme

  • NIKE AIR MAX ZERO QS
  • Their report with the longer title of “Ideas about naturalness in public and political debates about science, technology, and medicine,” analyzes the various ways that the terms “natural,” “unnatural,” and “nature” are used in the media, in journal articles, and in other venues. Compra Mochilas Kanken Baratas They are particularly concerned with how those terms shape people’s perceptions of new technologies. They solicited the help from experts in language and had poetry readings. Continue reading

    Where Do Babies Come From? Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells…Sort of

    Recent headlines tout that it may be possible for same-sex couples to have biological children thanks to stem cell technology. Nike Air Max 90 Femme Léopard Using skin stem cells, scientists from the University of Cambridge and the Weismann Institute found that it is possible to make primordial germ cells, the cells that eventually form into egg and sperm (gametes), from induced pluripotent stem cells created from a donor’s skin. Air Jordan 9 For Kids The opportunity for same-sex couples to have biological children may take over the headlines, but it is not the only, or necessarily the primary reason, scientists are interested in this research. Maglia Chris Paul One thing scientists hope to do is to use this technique to study age-related diseases. Nike Air Max Thea Homme Bleu New Balance 577 hombre As we go through our lives, we accumulate epigenetic messages that tell genes when to turn on or off, when to make more cells, or when to stop making cells. Ryan Kerrigan Redskins Jerseys Recent research shows that certain cancers and age-related diseases are likely due to these epigenetic factors going awry. These epigenetic factors are “reset” in germ cells, meaning scientists can start over and see how these factors develop at the cellular level. There is still much research that needs to be done in this area, including questions as to which epigenetic factors are passed on and which ones are actually reset in germ cells (See Nature’s recent issue on the results of the NIH’s Roadmap Epigenetics Project here). While the epigenetic research is interesting, the headlines emphasize the reproductive possibilities.

  • ADIDAS ULTRA BOOST 2017
  • This technique could be another option for infertile couples who want to have biological children, including same-sex couples who want children that are biologically related to both of them. New Balance 515 m?skie However, what is not touted as loudly is that, for now, the technology only works for male same-sex couples. Nike Air Jordan 14

  • NIKE LUNARGLIDE 8
  • The why this technique can be used for two men but not two women has to do with how the cells are made. Primordial germ cells are made from skin cells are taken from each person to be converted into induced pluripotent stem cells. Those stem cells are then converted into primordial germ cells by turning on or off certain genetic factors involved in converting pluripotent stem cells to particular cell types. Female cells have XX chromosomes and male cells have XY chromosomes, but in order to make primordial germ cells that are precursors to sperm, researchers need a Y chromosome. Lead researcher, Dr. NIKE FLYKNIT LUNAR3

    Hannah pointed out, that it is easier to take away a chromosome than to insert one. South Florida Bulls Women don’t have any Y chromosomes to contribute, meaning that making primordial germ cells from women “is a long way off.” Finally, one of the more troubling factors in this research is that little has been said about the health and well-being of the children that would be produced from this technique. A key point in the original research article in Cell is that SOX17 is a key factor in the process of making primordial germ cells and likely plays an important role in gene regulation. This was surprising to scientists because SOX17 does not play a key role in mouse development. This means that even though mice have been used in prior studies on creating primordial germ cells, they may not be a good model system for creating the subsequent sperm and egg cells. Often before a procedure or a drug makes it to human trials, it is first tested in mice and then in primates. When it comes to human development, though, things do not translate from animal models to human models as easily. Nike Flyknit Donna Once scientists are able to take the primordial cells and advance them to egg and sperm cells, they will be able to create an embryo. However, because the mouse models are different, this is a case in which we have no way of knowing whether these embryos or the children will be healthy until the experiment is actually done. It is unclear from the interviews or the article if the assumption is that “unhealthy” embryos will die off before they implant in the uterus or how exactly researchers are expecting to test whether this technique work as another reproductive technology. Nike Heren

  • ADIDAS TEAM COURT
  • If unhealthy embryos die, this poses an ethical problem for those that assume embryos should be granted dignity in their own right. But even if one does not accept that embryos are accorded a certain level of dignity, what about babies and children? What do scientists plan to do if the children born from this procedure are unhealthy or deformed? Finally, it is worth mentioning that this technique would provide a source of eggs, which are needed for various other reproductive techniques and research endeavors. adidas yeezy boost 750 m?skie For example, The UK just passed legislation permitting what has been dubbed “three-parent IVF” in which scientists transfer the nucleus from one woman’s egg to another woman’s enucleated egg that will then be used in IVF. The hope is to prevent mitochondrial disease which is genetically passed down to offspring from the mother. Air VAPORMAX Obtaining skin cells from a donor is much less invasive and poses less of a risk to the donor than obtaining her eggs after inducing hyperovulation.

    Can We Make an Embryo in a Dish?

    Induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are functionally equivalent, but should we be concerned about making embryos in a dish? Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been hailed as the discovery of the decade, providing an ethical alternative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Both types of stem cells are pluripotent, which means they can potentially make all of the cells in they body. Adidas NMD Femme This is contrasted to totipotent cells, which can give rise to an entire organism. asics gel kinsei 5 homme Parajumpers Femme Masterpiece Long The very early embryo consists of totipotent cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells have technical advantages over ESCs because the patient’s cells can be used rather than donor cells, and they are easier to control compared to ESCs. nike internationalist homme However, one of the concerns with iPSCs was whether they are truly equivalent to ESCs because of the various transcription factors that need to be turned on or off to get the cells to regress back to their pluripotent state. nike air max 2016 uomo

  • ROSHE LD-1000 QS
  • Nike Air Max 90 Femme
  • This debate was laid to rest with a new research report in Science, demonstrating that while iPSCs are genetically distinct from ESCs, they are functionally equivalent. New Balance 574 homme Adidas Femme New Balance 373 mujer Before deeming every iPSC procedure ethical and effective, consider the question several researchers from Australia, The Netherlands, and the U.K. Asics Heren ask in a Nature Methods commentary “What if stem cells turn into embryos in a dish?” Their reason for asking stems from research that shows how pluripotent stem cells (both iPSCs and ESs) can form organoids, small three-dimensional clumps of cells that are comprised of a particular organ’s cell type. Chaussures nike pas cher

  • FLYKNIT LUNAR3
  • The techniques to make pluripotent stem cells undergo the self-assembly and morphogenesis required to form an organoid also causes these cells to have many of the properties of embryos at the gastrulation stage of development. Nike Air Force 1 Without delving too deeply into the complexities of embryonic development, the gastrulation stage is a key point when it comes to regulations for human embryo research. nike dynamo free td (See here for a simple summary of recent research about stem cells that have been dubbed “gastruloids”). kanken baratas The U.K. adidas xeno superstar italia

  • Nike Air Max 2017 Blu Uomo
  • has a fourteen-day limit on human embryonic research. Human embryos are not allowed to remain intact in vitro beyond the fourteen-day point or after the formation of the primitive streak, whichever comes first. scarpe nike air max bambino scontate Australia has similar regulations. The pluripotent cells that appeared to reach the gastrulation stage seemed to form a primitive streak and showed signs of forming the beginnings of the Central Nervous System. Matt Holliday Authentic Jersey There are two things to consider.

  • nike free run 5 0 uomo
  • First, while these are hallmarks of a particular point in embryonic development, it is not the case that this clump of cells is an embryo. The stem cells are self-organizing, but they are without the same kind of holistic directionality that an embryo has. final fantasy 14 gil nike free 5.0 uomo saldi So while these stem cells proliferate in a more “organized” way than, say, a tumor, they lack key embryonic features. Nike Air Foamposite Nike Air Max 2016 Heren However, the authors pose an important question that needs to be addressed because the technology could eventually make embryos in a dish. new balance 574

  • NIKE AIR MAX THEA
  • Consider two situations in which it is possible to make an embryo without two genetic contributors, a mother and a father. The first is cloning, or somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the second is making gametes using iPSCs. Women Air Jordan 9 Somatic cell nuclear transfer has been successfully done in both animals and humans, although only animal cloned embryos have been implanted and birthed. Cloned animals tend to be unhealthy and often die young.

  • Nike Flyknit Air Max Femme
  • This continues to be an area of research, as evidenced by a recent article in Cell Stem Cell in which researchers from South Korea reported more efficient methods for cloning human embryos.* Gametogenesis is another active area of research. If induced pluripotent stem cells could be induced to differentiate into gametes (egg and sperm), then this would theoretically allow the creation of an embryo. Air More Uptempo Colorways This embryo may only have one parent if the egg and sperm were made from the same donor. nike air zoom pegasus 32 femme Or, it could be made from two parents who are the same gender. nike internationalist enfants Adidas Zx Flux Femme Blanche Nike TN Requin 2017 This is not yet possible because the oocyte is particularly tricky to form, but there is ongoing research attempting to produce both types of gametes from induced pluripotent stem cells. nike air max 1 og homme Maglia Patrick Ewing

  • Memphis Grizzlies
  • Whether one uses somatic cell nuclear transfer or gametogenesis via iPSCs, the creation of a human embryo is ethically problematic for many reasons. Adidas Zx 750 Homme The authors of the Nature Methods commentary raise important questions that hinge on when an embryo becomes an embryo in the laboratory setting. There are valid reasons to give the embryo a special status whether it is ever implanted in a uterus or not. Nike Air Max 2017 Donna Bianche

    Adidas Superstar Schoenen Dames As technology allows us to unravel the complex operations that go into meiosis and embryogenesis, we must carefully consider where moral lines are drawn. Nike Air Max Thea Homme Bleu Because making an embryo in a dish would be taking the technology too far, drawing ethical lines may require a nuanced approach to just what types of experiments are okay and where in the technical process the line must be drawn so that pluripotent stem cells remain at the pluripotent stage. air max homme pas cher Nike Air Max 2016 Dames Zwart * Technically, “clones” like Dolly the sheep are really chimeras, meaning there is a small amount of DNA from the oocyte donor that is different from the nuclear DNA. Nike Air Max 2017 Heren blauw The clone would produce an embryo from one genetic source if both the original cell and the oocyte came from the same animal.

    Synthetic Biology and Making Morphine in the Lab

    Prescription pain medicine addiction has become prevalent and widespread with several areas in the U.S. calling it a public health crisis. Opiates include prescription pain medicines, such as Vicodin, OxyContin, or fentanyl. The surge in opiate drug addiction can be traced to changes in the increase in prescriptions for opiate drugs beginning in the 1990s. Now headlines tout the possibility of a “home-brewed heroin.” If we unpack the headline, it turns out this “home-brewed” heroin is not exactly here yet. Scientists have replicated all of the metabolic processes that opium poppies use to turn glucose into morphine. nike air max 90 pas cher They have replicated parts of this process in yeast strains in an effort to make less addictive pain medicines as well as other analgesics. This synthesis of cellular processes is called synthetic biology. asics onitsuka tiger femme By way of a quick review, synthetic biology involves creating the digital DNA code to make proteins, the internal machinery of a cell, in the lab. Nike Chaussures Femme Yeast and e.coli are simple organisms and are often used to insert the DNA in a cell fitted with the necessary equipment to replicate and express the DNA. Craig Venter, in his book on synthetic biology, Life at the Speed of Light, calls DNA the software and yeast provides the hardware. Scientists want to tweak the software to make tailor-made drugs. Synthetic biology overlaps with genetic engineering, but where it differs is that synthetic biology allows scientists to replicate an entire cellular pathway within an organism, such as yeast, as opposed to inserting or deleting mutations in a DNA strand and then inserting it in a cell. Parajumpers Windbreaker Mary Todd The metabolic pathway reported in Nature (See the Nature News article) is the first part of the glucose-to-morphine pathway. Julio Jones Alabama Football Jerseys The second part of the pathway, as well as a reaction that links the two parts, was recently reported by other research groups. All of these parts have been demonstrated separately in various yeast strains. If scientists were to combine these parts in one yeast strain, then theoretically, they would be able to convert glucose to morphine. This has not been done yet, but will likely occur soon. AIR MAX 2016

    The process for making morphine from glucose is complex (it’s approximately eighteen steps), and because scientists do not know the whole genome for the opium poppy, they have had difficulty identifying the enzymes that catalyze each step in the reaction pathway. To overcome this hurdle, scientists turned to enzymes in other organisms to that catalyze similar reactions. The most recent research that identifies the first half of the morphine pathway used an enzyme from sugar beets that scientists mutated to ensure that it produced the product they needed without unwanted byproducts. The question remains, are we at a point where people can brew their own synthetic morphine? The short answer is no, not yet. Adidas Zx 850 Heren First, all of the steps have not been combined into a yeast strain. While this may be the next step in making synthetic morphine in the lab, it will need to be tested, and it may not work at first. Once scientists succeed at creating a yeast strain that can accomplish all of the steps, the process will need to be refined and optimized. New Balance 530 femme Johnny Cueto Jersey Secondly, in order for someone to brew their own morphine, he would have to acquire the yeast strain containing the synthetic DNA. NIKE AIR FOOTSCAPE This would mean acquiring the yeast from someone who not only knows the DNA code, but also has a PCR machine or some way to make synthetic DNA and then incorporate it into yeast. adidas superstar 80s homme Lastly, even if someone did acquire the yeast strain, according to Christine Smolke of Stanford University whose lab has made a semi-synthetic opioid using yeast, in an interview with Wired, said that the fermentation process would require specialized equipment and conditions that would be difficult to do outside a laboratory. It would also not produce enough morphine to make it cost effective. Adidas Superstar Femme Portee Fjallraven Kanken 16L While we are not at the point of worrying about home-brewed liquid morphine, the authors of the study were concerned about future consequences of their research. Adidas Zx 850 Femme One of the motivations for designing the synthetic pathway is to tweak it to make less addictive pain medicine or to make medicines for other uses. asics gel kinsei 5 femme This same ability to tweak the morphine-producing pathway could also be used for nefarious purposes. Nike Air Max 95 Femme New Balance 577 mujer The authors of the study sought ethical guidance from biotechnology-policy specialists Kenneth Oye, of MIT and Tania Bubela, of the University of Alberta. They published an article in Nature with Chappell Lawson, also from MIT, that came out in tandem with the research article. Oye, Bubela, and Chappell delineate the ethical and legal considerations for such research and provide four broad areas that should be considered:

    • Engineering – The yeast strains could be engineered to make them less appealing to criminals and more difficult to cultivate outside of a laboratory setting, similar to biocontainment practices with e. nike air zoom pegasus 33 homme coli.
    • Screening – Since the DNA sequence would need to be ordered from a lab, there could be a screening process in place that flags orders of opiate-producing yeast strains
    • Security – They could employ biosecurity measures, such as watermarking yeast made from certain labs and background checks on people working with the strains.
    • Regulation – Opium is a globally controlled substance. The laws that apply to opium could be extended to cover opiate-producing yeast strains.

    Overall, the headlines are a little misleading in that we are not yet on the cusp of people brewing their own morphine. However, the authors should be commended for considering the consequences of publishing their research and seeking ethical guidance. It is a good example of pre-emptively considering the hazards and consequences of technological advancement rather than responding to a crisis.

    NFL and Prescription Drugs

    The NFL is being sued by 1,300 former players for the way it distributed prescription pain medicines so players can get back in the game. The former players claim that they were not informed of the side effects of potent pain killers such as Percodan, Percocet, Vicodin, and Toradol. Jackets soft shell Percodan, Percocet and Vicodin are all opioid painkillers and Toradol is a strong non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug. Many of the former NFL players involved in the lawsuit played during the 1980s and 1990s when practices for administering powerful painkillers, both opioids and NSAIDs, were cavalier. mu legend redzen online Today they are, in theory, more regulated. New Balance 577 hombre sac a dos kanken pas cher kobe 11 pas cher Ezekiel Elliott Ohio State Jerseys The players state that the “NFL medical staffs routinely violated federal and state laws in plying them with powerful narcotics to mask injuries on game days.” They also claim that medical staff was negligent by keeping important information on the players’ medical conditions from them, such as markers for kidney disease or broken bones.

  • Air Jordan 1 Homme
  • At issue are 1) whether doctors and trainers violated the law by illegally administering prescription drugs, and 2) whether players were adequately informed of the side-effects of the drugs as well as informed of any medical issues that doctors found that might affect their decision. Doctors Behaving Badly? In an attempt to investigate whether illegal practices were going on, the DEA paid unannounced visits to several professional teams in November (2014) in which they questioned team doctors and trainers after the game. This investigation was to ensure that doctors were prescribing and distributing drugs appropriately, that they were handling controlled substances properly when crossing state lines, and that they had a license to practice in the state. Buty Adidas Dzieci?ce Thus far, the DEA has not found evidence of illegal activities in their investigation. However, an investigation from Vice Sports into how and where NFL doctors acquired such large amounts of prescription drugs, shows that, at least in the past, they were likely obtaining drugs illegitimately. zalando new balance uomo saldi From 2009 to 2010, several NFL teams, as well as other professional and college sports teams, acquired large amounts of opioids and NSAIDs from a company called SportPharm, an illegal drug distributor operating behind the legitimate company, RSF Pharmaceuticals. Julio Jones Jersey RSF Pharmaceuticals eventually shut down, and SportPharm was re-branded as a subsidiary of Champion Health Services, which is still in operation. nike free 3.0 v5 ext leopard Many teams would fill prescriptions in player’s names without the player knowing so that the actual quantities would fly under the radar. Cheap Fjallraven Kanken Backpack Informed Consent The second issue has to do with players’ rights, and whether they were adequately informed of what drugs they were given, their medical options given their current medical situation, and the long-term side effects. Nike Air Max 90 Uomo Many of the players received opiate drugs without being told about their addictive nature, and were often told to take them for longer or in higher dosages than what is recommended by the FDA. Adidas NMD Heren Furthermore, many players were given prescription pain medicine without a doctor’s evaluation or monitoring. Nike Benassi asics gel stratus uomo One former player reports that while playing for one team, an assistant trainer would pass out unlabeled manilla envelopes with pain medicine for any player that raised his hand and said he needed them. Mens Nike Air Max 90 Air Max 2014 Homme

    Another former player said that envelopes with prescription pain medicine would be waiting in the seats on the airplane for the players. MU Legend Items Matthew Stafford UGA Jersey Player testimonies from the class action law suit website show that many players were given powerful pain medicine instead of being told that they needed rest and recovery or that the problem was actually much worse and required surgery. Several players said that NFL doctors knew of existing health issues, but did not inform the players. Cheap Nike shoes UK Two players’ testimonies state that NFL doctors knew that they had indicators of kidney problems but did not tell the players. Maglie Denver Nuggets Both former players now have renal failure. Asics Gel Lyte 3 Donna Beige

    Another former player, Rex Hadnot, said in a Washington Post interview that he was given Toradol pills and/or injections once-per-week for nine years. He was never told that Toradol should not be administered for more than five days due to risk of kidney damage, heart attack, and stroke. He said that sometimes he would receive both a shot and a pill on the same day, a much higher dosage than the FDA recommends. The Mountain Climber Problem Part of the problem with discerning the ethics of safety for football players is exemplified in what H. Air Jordan 4 Retro

  • NIKE FLYKNIT LUNAR3
  • Tristam Engelhardt calls “the mountain climber problem.” In general, climbing a mountain is more dangerous than not climbing a mountain, but we do not consider it unethical to allow a mountain climber to scale a mountain if he so desires. Similarly, playing sports is inherently more dangerous than not playing sports. Nike Air Jordan 4.5 Womens
    Football players take on additional risks by choosing to play the sport. Yeezy Boost 750 Therefore, what protections, if any, are football players owed? There is a tension between restricting someone’s freedom and allowing them to put themselves in harm’s way. Nike Lebron 13 Nike Free 5.0 Hombre Typically, with the mountain climber problem, ethicists will say that it is unethical to allow additional harm to come to the person such that he or she could not accomplish the stated goal of climbing the mountain. mu legend zen online For example, while mountain climbing is inherently dangerous, the climber should still use a harness and ropes. Huston Street Baseball Jersey In the case of football players, while it is an inherently dangerous sport, one can enforce safety precautions to ensure that players are not injured in such a way that they cannot play the sport. jack wolfskin paw hat bere This is the motivation behind stricter rules to prevent concussions, helmet design, and padding. Air Jordan 11 Homme

    The difference between the mountain climber and the football player is that collisions are part of the sport. asics tiger lyte jogger Pain is a given. The former players who are suing the NFL claim that their health was sacrificed in the name of sales. buy mu legend items nike air max 2016 goedkoop But, other players criticize the lawsuit as nothing more than a money grab on behalf of former players because they knew what they were risking by playing the sport. Utah State Aggies Despite whatever motivations are behind the lawsuit or the NFL’s medical decisions, it is unethical to de-humanize athletes, even if they willingly chose to engage in de-humanizing activities. Caps Nike Air Max 2017 Kopen Let’s take a non-football example: If a woman choses to trade sex for money, she is willingly commodifying herself and ultimately engaging in a de-humanizing activity. adidas outlet shop asics gel lyte 3 hombre azules While this may have been her free choice, it does not mean that if she goes to a doctor, the doctor is no longer ethically obligated to treat her with human dignity. Air Jordan XX8 Retro
    In other words, even if she chooses to engage in activities that are de-humanizing, that does not mean it is okay for medical health professionals to treat her as less-than-human. In the case of football players, even if they may choose short-term returns at the expense of long-term injury, they need to be given the opportunity to make an informed choice on the matter because, ultimately, they are the ones that have to live with the consequences. new balance 1980 zante roma In the latest issue of Salvo Magazine (Winter, 2014) I cover the larger issue of prescription pain medicine addiction, what opiate drugs actually do to the brain, and how one becomes addicted.

    Artificial Intelligence in the News

    There’s been much ado about artificial intelligence lately. mu legend power leveling This has largely been prompted by a computer convincing some people that it is a 13-year-old boy and an article written by a veritable who’s who among emerging tech thinkers warning of the risks of superintelligent machines. cheap mu Legend zen Lol Humans A computerbot, named Eugene Gootsman, was able to convince 33% of people who interacted with him for five minutes via chat that he was a human. This was touted as a clear instance of a computer passing the Turing Test, but it was met with some criticism, including this piece in by Gary Marcus in The New Yorker. buy mu legend zen Ironically, rather than showcasing advances in human ingenuity, the Eugene Gootsman experiment reveals some of our less noble attributes. mu2legendzen For one, in order to make computers sufficiently human-like, programmers needed to make the machines dumber. As Joshua Batson points out in his Wired commentary, prior winners in an annual Turing Test competition incorporate mistakes and silliness to convince the judges that the computer is a person. This calls into question the value of a test for artificial intelligence which requires a machine to be “dumbed-down” in order to pass. legend zen for sale Secondly, the Turing Test, as it was presented in the media, could easily be one of those tests that the psychology department at your local university conducts on willing participants. The results of the Eugene Gootsman test say more about the judges than it does about the machine. Taken from another perspective, 33% of people tested were more gullible than the rest of the participants. You Have to Want to Want It This is contrasted to Stephen Hawking’s warning in an Independent article, co-authored by Stuart Russell, Max Tegmark, and Frank Wilczek, that superintelligence may provide many benefits, but could also lead to dire consequences if it cannot be controlled. Hawking and company write that “One can imagine such technology outsmarting financial markets, out-inventing human researchers, out-manipulating human leaders, and developing weapons we cannot even understand.” Yes, one can imagine technology doing this, but the question is can the technology imagine itself doing this? Hawking assumes that we will have the capability to engineer creativity or that creativity will somehow emerge from technology. However, we see from the examples of Eugene Gootsman, Watson the computer, Google smart cars, and Siri, that complex programming does not produce ingenuity. One could argue that the only way a machine would even muster up the “motivation” to do any of these things is if a human programmed that motivation into it. An example from science fiction is Asimov’s three laws of robots. mu legend zen for sale These are the inviolable principles programmed into the hardwiring of every robot in Isaac Asimov’s fictional world. These laws provide the motivations behind the robots’ behavior, and while they lead to some ridiculous and troubling antics, they are not the same as a robot coming up with its own fundamental motivations. In Asimov’s series, I, Robot, the impetus behind each of the robots’ behavior harkens back to these pre-programmed (ostensibly by humans) laws. mu legend zen This is not to dismiss the field of artificial intelligence. This is to call into question some of the assumptions behind the recent hype regarding the progress and the potential peril of AI. Technology is becoming increasingly more powerful with the potential for both helping and hurting. Hawking’s warning that “the short-term impact of AI depends on who controls it, the long-term impact depends on whether it can be controlled at all” is worth heeding.